Luxury Cars

"The difference between men and little boys is the price of their toys."

Fast Cars

"Everything in life is somewhere else, and you get there in a car."- E.B. White

Car Technology

"And I, I took the road less traveled by. I was using a GPS system."- Robert Brault

Green Cars

"Environmentally friendly cars will soon cease to be an option ... they will become a necessity."- Fujio Cho

Safe Cars

"Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves." - Albert Einstein

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Schumacher Fighting for His Life After Skiing Accident

Michael Schumacher, the seven time Formula 1 champion sustained a head injury on Sunday, Dec. 29 in a skiing accident in the French Alps, while he was skiing  off piste with his 14 year old son.

The motor racing legend has been since fighting for his life in intensive care and has had two brain operations in order to ease off the pressure of the haematoma and remove a clot.

He is currently still in a coma and in critical condition but according to an official update from Moutiers hospital where he's being treated, there had been a slight improvement in his condition. 

It's definitely too early to say whether the former Formula 1 champion is out of danger or not but one thing is for sure. If he hadn't been wearing a helmet at the time of the crash, he would have definitely not survived this accident. 

AutomotiveMania is hoping for better news and our thoughts and prayers go out to him and his family. 

Tuesday, December 24, 2013

2014 Guide For The 10 Girliest Cars

It is a little unfair to specify gender specifics when it comes to anything, mainly because pigeonholing gender specifics often encourages people to take on the associated roles.

Still, for those of us who are stuck with our mind full of gender stereotypes, it is hard to look at something and not recognize a gender issue. A boxy car with hard edges and lines like a tank is considered more masculine, whereas a rounded and curvaceous car is considered more feminine.

Some of the cars on this list are there because they look outright girly, and some are there because more women have bought them than men have.

1. Volvo S40

This car does have a few smooth edges and contours, but it still has a masculine touch to it and is fairly imposing on the road. However, this is one of those cars that is on the list because of female sales figures - 57.9% of new Volvo S40 sales went to women. This may not seem like a lot, but even in our times there are still far more men buying new cars than women. Even married couples tend to have the man make the purchase, so even though 57.9% of the S40 purchases went to women; it actually took a very large number of women to get up to that point.

2. VW Cabriolet

This car has actually picked up a girly image that is hart to shake. It is mainly due to female students having too much money and buying cars that are a little bit different.  

 3. Nissan Juke 

This is a four-wheel drive car that is still pretty imposing considering that it is trying to appeal to a feminine market. It gets its girly “feel” from the fact that it has no hard lines. The typical land rover is a perfect example of hard lines looking masculine, but, this car looks more like a smooth pebble that has washed up on the beach.

4. Fiat 5000

If hard lines on a car make it masculine, then this car is a born semi circle. The entire body has hardly a sharp corner or hard line on it. Every element is rounded. Even the decorative line on the front about the license plate has a rounded end to it. A glossy pink version was issued and displayed in honor of Barbie’s 50th birthday. 

5. Toyota Matrix

Around 54.1% of new car purchases are made by women, and there is a certain indescribable something to it that makes it slightly more feminine. The front of the car almost looks indignant. It almost looks as if it has an expression on its face similar to if you told a British person that their champagne needed a few more minutes to chill. If you were to ask people to pigeonhole the car as masculine or feminine, then few would pick masculine, but the exact reason why is hard to pinpoint. 

 6. Honda CR-V

It is not a burningly girly car, but it is easy to see why people think so. It seems to have such an inoffensive look about it. It looks apologetic through simply how the bonnet is shaped. It is the sort of car where if it hit you as you crossed the street you would dust yourself off and assume the driver didn’t mean it. There are lots of women who gravitate towards SUV cars, and given the choice, it is easy to see why they would pick the Honda CR-V.

7. Nissan Rogue

The Nissan Juke is the Nissan Rogue crossover. The Nissan Rogue has actually sold better with woman, where 56.9% of total purchases of the Rogue were mady by women. In design and convention terms, the Rogue is the normalized and "pop" design, where the Juke takes the less trodden path and differs from most cars.  

8.Volkswagen Beetle

The modern beetle has smooth contours and to this generation has little to do with hippies and long hair. Still, its smooth design and curves does make it a girly looking car. The hardest thing is picking a less girly color because unless you paint it with the colors of your national flag, then it is still going to look little girly. The sales figures show that 54.6% of new car purchase are made by women.

9.Peugeot 308CC 

This one is a bit of a puzzle because if it's painted black, silver or blue then it just looks like another unisex car. But, paint it orange, yellow or any shade of red and it looks just like a woman's car. One of the reasons it is more of a unisex car is because the windscreen has a very low slant to it, which makes it look like it was built for speed. 

10. Citroen Picasso  

Sure, one could say that it is the car of a responsible father and that is fair enough. But, mainly it is the sort of car that one may expect a woman to pick. It has sensitive curves and a body shape that says 'Precious cargo on board'.

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

First look at the Ford Mustang 2015

The Ford Mustang is enduringly cool as it approaches its 50th anniversary in 2014. The classic compact first hit the road in 1964, and will roar into its second half-century with two new models confirmed for 2014 and 2015.

The new 2015 Ford Mustang Cobra was recently spotted on the test track in Dearborn, Michigan and onlookers said it was going fast. The 2015 model being tested looked a bit different from what we’re used to seeing from the Mustang, coming draped in a funereal black curtain. But that’s because it was in disguise.


The manufacturers are very keen that you don’t know too much about their latest bad boy, lest we spoil the birthday surprise. But from what could be detected through the camouflage, though, the 2015 Mustang looks set to be exactly the kind of rugged powerhouse we’ve come to expect since the first Mustang hit the 1964 Indianapolis 500 as a pace setter. After which, it quickly became known as the kind of car dead movie stars would be found in, earning its place in popular iconography as the epitome of cool.

The 2015 Mustang is set to be considerably smaller than recent models, and will feature a steering wheel with 20 buttons, chunky tyres and the kind of brakes that could stop a fighter jet. By the look of its performance on the track, it’s going to need them.

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Team Bloodhound set to break speed records

The next contender for the world’s fastest car is currently being assembled in Bristol. A team of top engineers behind the Bloodhound supersonic car hope to smash through both the sound barrier and the land speed record with their pencil-shaped wheelie beast.

The current land speed record was set way back in 1997 by a British team also led by Richard Noble, who built the Thrust SSC. It reached speeds of over 768mph to become the first car to ever break the sound car and become ‘supersonic’. It was powered by two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan engines.

But the Bloodhound is set to race past that record with speeds of up to 1,000mph. Noble's team of just 34 people, which is currently working in the former Maritime Heritage Centre on Bristol harbour, will use a jet engine – specifically a prototyope Eurojet EJ200 – to propel the car to 300mph. After that a second engine will pick up the speed, a special hybrid rocket designed by Daniel Jubb, which will blast the Bloodhound up to the 1,000mph barrier.

In total the Bloodhound will have as much power as approximately 180 Formula 1 cars. If the world record attempt goes according to plan, the team will have broken the land speed record by around 33%, which is the highest ever margin. The record attempt is set to take place in 2016, but before that it will be tested on a 12 mile runway in South Africa in 2014.

Hold onto your hats!

Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Why the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG is the best car in ages

The Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG is a blast from the past, and a rocket into the future at the same time. Here’s why it’s our favourite supercar of the last five years.

Sitting in this tidy Merc is having your wheels firmly rooted in automobile history. It’s like being in Back to the Future, with classic design and features propelled with state-of-the-art technology and whoosh! contours.

It’s a modern-day take on the classic Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing from 1954, which makes it look like something Steve McQueen or Sean Connery would have driven back in the day. It’s not easy to get into, but then, being an action hero isn’t supposed to be easy. When they’re open, they look more like wings. And boy, can she fly…

With 369lb of torque at 2000rpm, this Benz screams through the early gears to leave your skull pressed firmly against the headrest. At full throttle, it does 60mph in 3.7 seconds, and handles like a snifter of vintage brandy after a feast of molecular gastronomy.

At £150,000, the SLS AMG looks like a bargain for a supercar of its quality. It is possibly the tastiest item on the menu, when compared with its rivals, the Porsche 911 Turbo and the Aston Martin Vantage V12. Both the Aston and the Porsche weigh in a little cheaper, but if you’re looking for a car that will stand out, the Mercedes has easily the finest handling and aesthetic prowess.

Wednesday, August 07, 2013

New generation Hyundai i10 is a great city car

Hyundai are set to challenge Volkswagen as leaders of the city car market.

For some time now, Volkswagen have had the city car pretty much covered. Not only do they have their own Volkswagen Up, which is hugely popular for people with limited parking space who want something a little more spacious than a roller skate. They also engineer two pretty much identical cars for other brands, the Skoda Citigo and the SEAT Mii.

All three of those cars are very good at what they do, but putting out the same car under three different brands was only ever an illusion of choice. They were pretty much the same thing, engineered by the same people.

But now Hyundai is set to offer a genuine alternative for people looking for a good little runaround car, with its New Generation i10 model. “Prepare to take the city by storm,” says the promo material. And it may just do that, having already been recommended by What Car as the best city car for under £9,000.

Since its inception in 2007, the i10 has become one of Hyundai’s biggest successes in recent years, capped off by the winning New Generation model, which is set to really compete with Volkswagen. People who have had a spin in the i10 tend to agree, saying it’s comfortable, well designed to maximise the space, and drives like a go-kart.

For first time buyers and city slickers alike, it looks like Hyundai have just produced a winner.

Monday, July 29, 2013

Driverless car technology zooming into the UK

Could the information superhighway soon be moulded to the tarmac highway? It could if Google and other developers of driverless, electric and other ‘smart’ vehicles break through with the technology.

Google’s driverless car is scheduled to hit UK roads as early as next summer for test drives. But in the US, three states have already passed laws to allow cars to be driven automatically, by censors and software, rather than by human hands.

There is almost certainly a future for semi-autonomous – or even autonomous – vehicles in the UK and abroad. Transport minister Patrick McLoughlin is already preparing his department to implement new strategies for UK roads on which automatic cars will feature prominently.

The trials will begin on rural roads, and will be in the presence of a back-up driver in the case of an emergency. Guided by censors, the vehicles are programmed to keep a safe distance from the car in front and to stay in the same lane.

Researchers at Oxford University are currently trialling a RobotCar that communicates with the driver via an iPad. Bill Ford Jr, the head of the Ford motor company, expects driverless vehicles to be commonplace by 2025.

Wednesday, July 17, 2013

Drop in petrol prices eye of the storm for motorists

Have you noticed something strange at the petrol station recently? No, not the fact that a lot of them sell beer. If you fill up at a supermarket, you may have seen the price of fuel briefly go down.

It’s obviously not going to last long – it’s the eye of a storm whipping up. But big supermarkets Sainsbury’s, Asda and Morrisons have cut the price of petrol by 2p a litre. It offers motorists a brief reprieve from the grind of constantly rising prices, but for many motorists, capping the cost of unleaded at 130.7p is like slightly easing the grips on a strangulation.

And right on cue, the AA announced this week that the grip is about to tighten again, with more price rises expected. All this for a number of factors, apparently. Low interest rates and a falling pound makes petrol more expensive because it’s bought in US dollars. Wholesale prices rose $50 a tone for the first time since April, a hike that will be passed on to customers for sure.

Monday, July 01, 2013

Tension cools between fast lane and cycle lane

Consumer Intelligence has released a report that shows how cyclists are grinding motorists' gears. The vast majority of drivers are griped by cyclists who aren’t insured, don’t wear helmets and cycle dangerously, and would like to see new rules introduced to make insurance and helmets compulsory.

A large majority (83%) said they think cyclists should have to pass the equivalent of a driving test before they’re allowed on the roads. A third would also like cyclists to pay ‘road tax’, or vehicle excise duty, which is compulsory for motorists but not for cyclists.

But motorists hankering after a bit of road rage over these findings may be disappointed. Most two-wheelers actually agree that helmets and road safety tests ought to be compulsory, while over a third are happy to buy insurance.

Bicycle campaigners have noted – rather facetiously – that nobody pays ‘road tax’, since it was abolished in 1937. But whatever it’s called, this doesn’t alter the fact that car and van owners pay a tax to use the roads – vehicle exsice duty – which cyclists do not.

So it seems the biggest debate, for once, isn’t over who cut up who at a roundabout, but the semantics relating to a piece of legislation. Maybe relations are cooling between the fast lane and the cycle lane.

Wednesday, June 19, 2013

New restrictions for young drivers

It seems the government and the insurance industry have got it in for young drivers.

After a letter was published today in the Daily Telegraph urging tougher rules for young drivers, it looks likely there will be action taken to impose curfews, a zero limit on alcohol and a minimum one-year learning period for all young motorists.

The coalition of police chiefs, insurance companies and road safety campaigners are lobbying the government to fulfill its promises to get tough on road safety, particularly on boy racers and inexperienced young tearaways who cause more carnage behind the wheel than any other demographic.

2,500 people aged 16 to 25 were killed or seriously injured in cars driven by young drivers in the last two years. But it’s unclear how effective – or indeed how fair – it is to penalise all young drivers. If we were talking about female or elderly drivers, it’s unlikely the government or the road safety lobby would feel comfortable in making such arbitrary proposals.

It will be nigh-on impossible to police a night-time curfew, and the zero-tolerance for alcohol could be difficult to avoid miscarriages of justice. Traces of alcohol remain in the blood long after the effects have worn off, and to prevent night-time driving, the over-stretched police force would have to stop and identify people who look young behind the wheel after dark.

The answer may be in longer training periods or more effective practical driving tests. But discrimination on this scale is simply replacing one societal ill with another.

Thursday, June 06, 2013

New car sales rise again

As we previously noted, it’s making more sense to buy a new car. A lot of other people seem to think so too, as the number of new cars rolling off the forecourt increased 11 per cent last month.

May was the fifth consecutive month of growth for the UK car market, according to the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, who carried out the survey. Private car sales are back at their pre-recession levels of 2008.

The Ford Fiesta was the most popular new car, its big brother the Ford Focus coming in second, while the Vauxhall Corsa slipped a place to third. Most of the cars in the top ten were hatch-backs or small family cars, which remain popular as the cost of fuel continues to rise and people’s wages in real terms are on the slide.

“While it is clear that buying confidence among UK motorists is very strong, continued economic uncertainty abroad, particularly in the rest of Europe, will mean that manufacturers remain cautious about performance in the second half of 2013,” says SMMT interim chief executive Mike Baunton.

Friday, May 31, 2013

Buying a new car? Read this first: 3 cars that hold their value

We all know that when you buy a brand new car, the moment you drive it out of the showroom it loses a lot of its value. But with the finance deals many showrooms now offer, it could be more financially viable to purchase a brand new car than a second-hand one.

Many dealerships now offer to contribute to your deposit, or even put down the entire deposit on your behalf. Combine that with benefits such as three years free servicing and road tax for a year, it may well be the best option. But one thing you can’t avoid when buying new is the depreciation rate. This is something that dealerships can’t control.

But, by doing a bit of research, you can find cars which don’t lose as much of their value, making them the best deal. Here are some things to consider:

Fast cars are inevitably expensive, and are notorious for high depreciation levels. However, due to recent popularity levels and consumer trends, some sports cars are now better at holding their value. Take the Porsche 911 GT Coupé, which has a retained value level of 72% after three years.

If you’re after a more practical, family-friendly car, then you should consider the BMW X3 diesel that has a retained value of just over 70% after the first three years.

Don’t want a family car but don’t want a crazy sports car either? Then the Audi A1 diesel is a great city car yet still comfortable for longer journeys. This model currently holds a 63.6% retained value after the first three years or 30,000 miles.

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

The ugliest cars in the world

They’re the automotive eyesores we love to point and gawp at, but rarely bother to quantify. Thanks to the Daily Telegraph which polled its readers on the matter, we now have an unofficial and highly contestable list of the world’s ugliest cars.

The nation's retired colonels, or whoever reads the Telegraph nowadays, have made some interesting choices. Alongside some real stinkers like the Nissan Cube and Peugeot 1007, they’ve included some merely awkward-looking vehicles such as the Porsche Panamera and even the classic Morris Minor and Jaguar XJ-S. Here's their 'top' 10:

Range Rover Evoque
Ford Ka
Morris Minor
Suzuki X-90
Nissan Cube (pictured)
Porsche Panamera
Austin Allegro
Peugeot 1007
Jaguar XJ-S
Nissan Juke

What do you think?

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Thousands in line to be let off speeding fines

Have you been convicted of a speeding offence recently? If so, you may be able to contest your conviction due to a technical error involving many of the UK’s road signs.

The Crown Prosecution Service says a cock-up on the M42 in Warwickshire means many of the speeding tickets issued on two stretches of road could be voided because the variable speed-limit signs didn’t meet traffic regulations. Some of the electronic signs which inform drivers of changing speed limits – Advanced Motorway Indicators – are said to have been in the wrong sized font.
This may seem like a triviality, and it is. But there could be a lot to gain from this little loophole. Thousands of people were caught by speed cameras on that stretch of road – between junctions 3a to 7 and junctions 7 to 9 – until November 2012, when Warwickshire police stopped using the signs and halted prosecutions.

It’s estimated as many as 11,000 people could be entitled to claim back their fines and have their points reinstated. The Highways Agency says the signs did comply with the regulations, although the CPS and Warwickshire Police are advising people who were nabbed on the M42 before November last year to seek independent advice, as they could have been falsely prosecuted.

Tuesday, March 05, 2013

Best and worst service stations in the UK

Every driver will sooner or later have to familiarise themselves with the motorway service station. This will mean getting used to poor quality food at rip-off prices in an environment of unbearable drabness. You may not think it, but some are actually better than the others. But seeing as they all blend into one identikit, low-roofed hut in our imaginations, it’s often difficult to remember which ones were worth holding on for, and which should be skipped.

Thankfully one loveable anorak has put together a rankings system for every motorway convenience in the UK. What emerges from the results is that – perhaps unsurprisingly – they're all mostly terrible, with very little to distinguish between the awful and mediocre.

By popular consensus, the best roadside convenience in the UK is the Tebay, on the M6 near Penrith in the north west of England. So far apart from its peers is Tebay that it is described as the Keira Knightley of service stations. It boasts unusually clean toilets, a decent array of health food, a children’s play area, and even a butcher’s onsite. In short, it’s everything we’ve come to expect a service station not to be.

Unfortunately, Penrith is only one of two independent service stations in the UK. The other is Cairn Lodge on the M74 in Scotland, but the reviews suggest this one’s no better than its big corporate rivals. Of the big chains, facilities run by Moto are scored highest, while Welcome Break is considerably worse, and Road Chef outright dismal.

Next time you need a break, consider this, and hope you’re in the vicinity of Penrith near the Lake District, or at least an establishment run by Moto.

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

McLaren unveils new green P1 at Geneva Motor Show

It’s only February, but already there’s a contender for the year’s best super car. And not just any top-end speed monster, either – the McLaren P1 is a green machine. And since the press shots show a yellow paint-job, this can only mean ‘green’ as in eco-friendly.

Even though it can hit 62mph in three seconds, the impact of revving it up can be consolidated by the P1’s innovative energy-saving technology. Running on petrol with an additional electric motor, its CO2 emissions will be way below that of most other super cars. At 200g/km, it’s 10-20% greener than its competitors, and even includes an electric-only mode with zero emissions, which runs for around six miles.

Then take a look at the thing – a snarling speed buggy that outstrips even the “best car in the world,” McLaren’s own 12C Spider, in the cosmetics department. True, it’s almost exactly the same as the prototypes revealed last year – the only difference being a couple of air vents ahead of the front wheels. But with the look of a Lotus Elise reimagined by George Lucas, this is the motor that really looks like it’s operating in another dimension. Unfortunately, this kind of whizz-bang doesn’t come cheap, even by super-car standards.

Limited to a fleet of 375, the McLaren P1 will set you back £866,000 when it hits the mega-exclusive forecourts this Autumn. A first glimpse of the P1 is being offered to attendees of the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Ask a mechanic nicely and he may let you take one for a spin – or not.

Monday, February 18, 2013

Why more people are buying new

Despite tight economic conditions, new-car sales continue to rise. More vehicles were driven off the forecourt than the previous months in January, an 11% increase on 2012. This is the eleventh consecutive rise in monthly sales. There are a number of reasons this is happening.

It’s cheaper (sometimes)

It can actually be cheaper to buy new if you’re paying through a finance scheme. Auto Express recently compared the prices of new and used versions of the same vehicle, and found that with cheaper and mid-range models such as the Ford Focus and Volkswagen Scirocco, customers saved up to £3,200 with a new car. Combined with increased warranties and better insurance deals, it’s no wonder 70 per cent of new cars are now bought this way.


"Some motorists are looking to the new car market to take advantage of the latest technologies that offer enhanced fuel efficiency and lower running costs," a spokesperson for the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders told the Guardian. "Very little movement in the housing market may have also shifted focus to new car replacement."

New-car smell 

There aren’t any figures relating to the number of people who buy a new car for its unique scent. But the new-car smell is certainly a factor in the emotional appeal of buying a new car. Getting a whiff of that leathery freshness signifies success, security and freedom.

Monday, January 28, 2013

Petrol price looking to go up 4p in the next few days

Campaigners are warning the public that petrol prices may increase by 4p a litre in the next couple of days.

The Petrol Retailers Association has reported that a review of the wholesale fuel market was needed as "despite recent arctic weather cutting fuel demand across northern Europe and refinery chiefs complaining at their glut of petrol capacity" wholesale costs of petrol have risen 5p a litre in the four weeks after Christmas.

PRA chairman Brian Madderson said: "The shock rise in wholesale costs is just one of the reasons why the Petrol Retailers' Association has been knocking on the door of the Office for Fair Trading, since this time last year, to demand a full investigation into the workings of the UK market for road fuel".

Motoring journalist Quentin Wilson said: "A 4p rise is going to be cataclysmic for motorists, for families, for businesses across the UK. In some parts of the country we are seeing diesel as high as 148p so this will tip it over the psychological threshold of 150p...and it's unsupportable."

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

The best of the 2013 Detroit Auto Show!

The two day event has come to an end and we have pulled ourselves together to sit down and bring you the best bits and top news from the spectacle.

Shelby GT500 & Super Snake Widebody

Can we just say… WOW! Shelby are known for retuning Ford products into racing demons and they’ve done it again with their Ford Focus ST. With an upgraded suspension, hard hitting breaks and exhaust system, the car is a beast of a machine. 

 Buyers can upgrade the 252 horespower output to over 300 and production of these cars will be limited to 500 units.

Along with the internal upgrades, Shelby released a new body kit, the Super Snake, which is a wider option that will accommodate the 10 inch front and 13inch back wheels.

To get your hands on one of these beauts prepare to spend around £22,000 for the Ford Focus ST and then another $14,995 for the original kit and $28,995 for the Super Snake.

Acura NSX Concept Car

Don’t expect to get your hands on this gem for a few years, but Acura’s hybrid supercar is still pulling in admiration. The exterior is sleek and almost Batman like while the interior reveals maroon leather bucket seats and a “human connected space” which we determine means loads of snazzy buttons and high tech amenities. 

Lexus Entry Level Sports Car

Lexus are keeping their word on broadening their market by introducing affordable, yet stylish vehicles. The new Sedan’s design is sleek and flawless and will be available from 2014. 

2013 Bentley GT Speed Convertible

This car left tongues wagging and soft whimpers escaped the crowds of admirers that surrounded Bentley’s new speed devil.  With 616-horsepower, 6.0 liter W12 engine and top speed of 202mph, we dare you not to be impressed. The latest ME17 engine management system, capable of performing 180 million individual calculations per second, provides enhanced turbocharger control and torque management, enhancing drive ability. In common with all W12-engined models, the GT Speed convertible features an energy recuperation system.

2014 BMW Z4

While we aren’t into the current Hyper Orange package on display, the new Z4’s 335 horsepower, 332 pound-feet of torque and a 7-speed DCT gearbox totally makes up for it. 

2014 Chevrolet C7 Corvette Stingray

We left the best for last here! The C7 seemed to take on a life of its own at the show and like a giant magnet, drew us in and never let us go.  Slightly smaller than previous models and with a slick, aerodynamic design, this machine will give the appearance of flight down an empty highway. Boasting 450 horsepower and 450 pound-feet of torque to the promised 0-60 mph of under four seconds, what more could we really ask for? Oh, Did we mention the four massive rear end valves?


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